Intimate Partner Violence: Definitions
(as provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, preventable public health
problem that affects millions of Americans. The term "intimate partner violence"
describes physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner
or spouse. This type of violence can occur among heterosexual or same-sex
couples and does not require sexual intimacy.
IPV can vary in frequency and severity. It occurs on a continuum, ranging
from one hit that may or may not impact the victim to chronic, severe battering.
There are four main types of intimate partner violence (Saltzman et al. 2002):
Physical violence is the intentional use of physical force
with the potential for causing death, disability, injury, or harm. Physical
violence includes, but is not limited to, scratching; pushing; shoving;
throwing; grabbing; biting; choking; shaking; slapping; punching; burning; use
of a weapon; and use of restraints or one's body, size, or strength against another person.
Sexual violence is divided into three categories: 1) use of
physical force to compel a person to engage in a sexual act against his or her
will, whether or not the act is completed; 2) attempted or completed sex act
involving a person who is unable to understand the nature or condition of the
act, to decline participation, or to communicate unwillingness to engage in the
sexual act, e.g., because of illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or
other drugs, or because of intimidation or pressure; and 3) abusive sexual contact.
Threats of physical or sexual violence use words, gestures,
or weapons to communicate the intent to cause death, disability, injury, or physical harm.
Psychological/emotional violence involves trauma to the
victim caused by acts, threats of acts, or coercive tactics.
Psychological/emotional abuse can include, but is not limited to, humiliating
the victim, controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding
information from the victim, deliberately doing something to make the victim
feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim from friends and family,
and denying the victim access to money or other basic resources. It is
considered psychological/emotional violence when there has been prior physical
or sexual violence or prior threat of physical or sexual violence. In addition,
stalking is often included among the types of IPV. Stalking generally refers to
"harassing or threatening behavior that an individual engages in repeatedly,
such as following a person, appearing at a person's home or place of business,
making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or
vandalizing a person's property" (Tjaden & Thoennes 1998).
Why is a Consistent Definition Important?
A consistent definition is needed to monitor the incidence of IPV and examine
trends over time. In addition, it helps determine the magnitude of IPV and
compare the problem across jurisdictions. A consistent definition also helps
researchers measure risk and protective factors for victimization in a uniform
manner. This ultimately informs prevention and intervention efforts.
Saltzman LE, Fanslow JL, McMahon PM, Shelley GA. Intimate partner violence
surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended data elements, version 1.0.
Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for
Injury Prevention and Control; 2002.
Tjaden P, Thoennes N. Stalking in America: Findings from the National
Violence Against Women Survey. Washington (DC): Department of Justice (US);
1998. Publication No. NCJ 169592. Available from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/169592.pdf [PDF 186 KB]